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TBE Meningococcal Disease Influenza Smallpox
 


  Immunization

Several attempts were made before 1940 to develop a vaccine against meningococcal disease. These early vaccines consisted of either killed whole organisms or crude extracts of broth cultures. Although several investigators demonstrated that antibodies to the group-specific capsular polysaccharide antigens could passively protect mice against the disease, purified preparations failed to work in human volunteers.

With the introduction of antibiotics, the first successful treatment for meningococcal disease, vaccine development became less essential. However, vaccine research and manufacturing techniques were pushed again, when sulfonamide-resistant strains of serogroup C meningococci occurred in 1963 in military personnel in the United States.

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